An abandoned salt mine in the lime

An abandoned salt mine in the lime, Greater Poland Voivodeship

Lime is a large village in greater Poland Voivodeship. In the years 1911-1917 It was built in the lime mortar rock salt mine.
In the year 1977 was there a disaster as a result of which the mine was flooded by groundwater. Also collapses a dozen residential buildings (This blocks). In April 2007 year after 30 the years since the disaster occurred for the next collapse to the ground.

In the years 50. and 60. Lime salt mine was the largest plant of this type in Poland. The last Mermaid, calling the miners to work in the salt mines in the lime, sounded 4 August 1977 year of the 17.00. It was closed after the crash with 5 August. It came then to break the salt shelves, what caused the spill of mine groundwater. Wlewająca water rock burst caused the ground around the mine. Destroyed almost the entire Center of Lime. To underlying blocks, the road disappear, osuwały and burst the walls. Their houses had to leave close to 1500 people. The village surrounds the militia cordon and for many months not to wpuszczano anyone. Hidden from the general public during the period of PRL disaster, to this day remains the largest terrestrial disaster in the history of the Polish mining.

The area, however, was still not stable. In 2007 r. and in the 2010 r. in the lime to the subsequent cracks and slumping of the Earth. Evacuated residents for a short time then the surrounding buildings. After a few days, however, they were coming back to their homes. In the end, commissioned a detailed geological studies have been, that lasted for the next 3 years. The conclusions of the report may not enjoy the inhabitants Of optimism. Is clear, that site is still active and in the future could be the next mining damage. However, the report does not indicate the likelihood of the occurrence of the event. The most dangerous is in the vicinity of the nursery and landslides. There is a ban on building new buildings. People are not mutually exclusive in the future even the possibility of expulsion of some buildings.

With memories of Miner

kopalnia_soli_w_wapnie_katastrofa_1On the night of 4 on 5 August 1977 water year she came into a place for the first time. – Something began to happen already the ninth circle in the evening. I remember, There were six of us – the whole brigade, but well after midnight the only two we left with a friend on the third level see, What's going on there – mention Stefan Górecki. – We already knew, the miners put the dam. And when we stopped, We saw a huge wave of water, over which floated such a strange blue haze. – We will unload our here – I shouted to fellow. I knew, on the third level there is no what to look for. I was the last miner, that went from the bottom to the surface .

– And I was in the army, in Bydgoszcz – mention Kazimierz Koliński. I remember this day exactly the, on the fifth of August, because that's the day I was born, the son of. From a wife I know, that morning the whole Lime wstało surprised, because of the sixth morning zawyła, as usual, Mermaid, calling people to work. In the lime that day there was at all sinister silence. There was heard a train, daily exported salt, It was about fifty wagons, It's hard not to hear them. The noise of the typed in our countryside. We've been waiting for it. However, on that day, the train has not gone.

Because in October the water no longer joking around. Her mercilessly in the mine shafts, and landslides to flip flop back houses, garages, trees and leaving behind trails a sinister black holes. – I remember two views – mention Zbigniew Grabowski. – One, as with the holes in the ground can only see the Crown of trees, that sunk. And the second, How to literally wrap tracks. Knows the Lady, last train ,that drove the route from Gniezno to Nakło by Lime it was the sixth in the morning. He rode, and before the tracks like wykręcały.

And then it started. Returned to the militia and the military, began a mass evacuation of people to saws and Wągrowiec, began a massive conspiracy against the media. No one had the right to know, What happened in the lime. Was supposed to be a success. Such were the times. About disasters was not allowed to write, talk, mention. The disaster there was.

The story of the disaster in the lime?

kopalnia_soli_w_wapnie_katastrofa_2Lime salt mine was included to secure. There has been in the presence of methane. I never was in danger, gas. The greatest danger was the water. Residual wysadem of gypsum formation Center was Cap salt water sources. Excess salt, potassium-magnesium products, particularly susceptible to dissolution and defaulting on the surface of the mirror of HCL, have wyługowaniu. As a result, were underground trenches filled with bleached.

Leaks from such ditches may lead to flooding of mining workings. Gypsum Cap represented a water tank with a very high capacity. According to the assessments of water resources researchers and brine czapie lighting at around 2,5 min m3. Perhaps as a result of subsidence of floor protection shelves mine between the mirror and the salt czapą gypsum formed the free space filled with brine. The operation has led to the creation of hydrochloric wysadu connections between underground water tanks and numerous old mine heads mining.

Leaks from such ditches may lead to flooding of mining workings. Gypsum Cap represented a water tank with a very high capacity. According to the assessments of water resources researchers and brine czapie lighting at around 2,5 min m3. Perhaps as a result of subsidence of floor protection shelves mine between the mirror and the salt czapą gypsum formed the free space filled with brine. The operation has led to the creation of hydrochloric wysadu connections between underground water tanks and numerous old mine heads mining.
Already in the 1912 r. during the construction of the glass with lime and, at a depth of 101,5 (m), There was a large water supply, as a result, had to abandon further work. An attempt to deepen the shaft in the 1928-1931 also ended in failure due to water supply. In 1921 r. There was a crack and water inrushes tubingów for shaft Lime II. There was then a partial flooding of excavation at the level IV. The water was very difficult during the sinking of the shaft Lime and before putting it into operation in 1966 r. In March 1961 r. water bursting into the shaft to zgłębionego 170 (m). In 1970 r. There has been another failure. Water bursting into the shaft no and causing partial sinking of mining workings. For many years, were seen spilling lye on level III. In connection with the onset of Regional threats Urząd Górniczy in Poznań he mine in the lime to the highest degree of water hazard. From 1971 r. zabezpieczano glass on the basis of a special decision of the Minister of the chemical industry in April this year.

kopalnia_soli_w_wapnie_katastrofa_3In August 1972 r. There was a leakage of lye from the floor in the Chamber 36 level III. Initially the amount of dispensed by the lye was approximately 0,2 l/min. The chemical composition of the liquid does not point to the existence of a connection with a non-wysadu. Over time, the leak increased, What prompted the Directorate of mine to carry out the isotopic studies. As a result of the study found the existence of a connection with a non-water deposits. In 1973 r. an attempt to eliminate a leak from the surface. Reconstructed bore (N l) located near the spill and wywiercono several new openings. Wtłaczano to them the measures wypełniająco-impregnujące, and later soaked in brine. These works, however, have not given expected results.
In July and August 1976 r. There has been an increase in leakage, l July this year amounted to approximately 1,5 l/min and 31 August already 5,6 l/min. It was the work of preventive measures to curb the leak. Started performing in the przytamek excavation korytarzowych level III. In mid-September 1976 r. the leak increased to 7 l/min, What is considered a serious threat to mine. 15 Director in Chief of the Chemical raw materials Quarrying Unification September in consultation with the Minister of the chemical industry and President of the State Mining Authority introduced the status of mine rescue. Specialist rescue teams have been set up. Action Director was Dipl.. Marian Wasilewski. (M). Vasilevsky was the Director of the mine from 31 July 1974.

The rescue action does not lead to the containment of the spill in the Chamber 36. In the period from March to June 1977 r. There are new leaks in the area of rescue, l July 1977 r. the combined impact of brine from all leakages were already 50-60 l/min, (a) 18 July 127 l/min.
A study carried out in June 1977 r. by experts from the military technical Academy, using thermal imaging equipment and specialists from the Academy of mining and metallurgy and Geofizycznach Studies in Warsaw has shown a reduction in the thickness of the shelves and numerous old mine heads on salt spray protection violation of strength and structure of the międzykomorowych pillars at levels III and IV. It turned out, that dwustumetrowa is just a place for the narrowest protective shelf 40 (m) of the thickness of.
It has been speculated, that the water enters the excavation from the tank located partly in gypsum czapie. It was decided to drill clear through the opening to the tank and pump out the water. Enterprise of the mining Works in mysłowice acceded to the tunnelling for level III, in the area of narrowing the protection shelf. Tunnelling was carried out using a specially brought from Silesia coal Harvester "Alpini" production of the Austrian. Due to the water flow walkway further work on hold.
19 July 1977 r. in the mine held a meeting of the Commission on the unification of water hazards. The Director of the mine, (M). Wasilewski, made a commitment to suspend the extraction in the event of exceedances of the critical size of spill 0,5 m3/min (500 l/min). The rescue action did not yield positive results. 3 August has risen to leak 530 l/min . Immediately it was decided to completely suspend the extraction. Was the only rescue and evacuation equipment and equipment of underground workings. 4 August about an hour 430 water flow increased to 2 m3/min, and then to 5 m3/min. Because Lime shaft II was under renovation there was a risk of blocking the shaft equipment, Lime and, and thus the rescue teams working under the ground. Command has been issued to leave all levels below III. On the night of 4 on 5 August about an hour I30 was a disastrous interruption of significant masses of water in the Chamber 36. Immediately withdrawn to the surface of the other employees and members of the rescue teams. No one was killed or suffered injuries. According to the calculations of estimates adopted, that in the 15 minutes to excavation into some 30 000 m3 of water (2000 m3/min), and a day flow amounted to an average of 300 m3/min. Probably it was decided or protective salt shelf popękała. From the Earth's surface near the mine disappeared the water from the tank after the former gypsum mines. The water began to run down with level III on the lower levels.
As a result water inrushes to mine gypsum and rock caps dehydration has been defaulting around wysadu. This led to the production of a depressive hopper and empty space under the ground. 5 as a result of land subsidence in August six sinkholes on the surface of the Earth, that took the shape of the hopper with a diameter of 2 to 20 m and depth to 7 (m). The first spas have sprung up in the reservoir after the former gypsum mines.

kopalnia_soli_w_wapnie_katastrofa_4Spas have sprung up near the nursery located at ul. Świerczewskiego. Partially sunken garage standing on the back of the nursery. An evacuation of the population from the affected objects. Informed about the crash of Head of the municipality of Lime, Tadeusz Kramer, upon arrival by phone reported about the situation of the voivode 140, that is called escape action staff. Evacuated 324 a person with 21 buildings, halted rail traffic and automotive. Kindergarten, mail, telephone exchange, Health Centre and pharmacy moved to the premises of the elementary school.

16 August 1977 r. again it came to settling the land, This time outside the immediate danger in the Garden Street. At night the residents heard suspicious noises. Began to crack the walls of, Earth obsuwała. Fire-fighting water has leaked from the pool. Immediately an rescue. Evacuated another family, that were deployed in hotels, student dormitories — and replacement buildings in neighboring towns.

Lime began to come, scientists from across the Polish. They came from the District and the State Mining Authority, from Geophysical Exploration in Warsaw, from the Central Mining Institute in Katowice, from Oil Mining Geophysics Toruń-Saw, from the Academy of mining and metallurgy. Launched a study of land for settlements. Researchers from the Institute of mining of the ground resistance of electrical conduction on investigating. Geofizycy from Warsaw have applied the latest gravimetric apparatus. The test drilling was carried out. All the action was aimed at determination of the presence of the so-called. Caverns, that is, the empty space under the ground, a threat of further development of sinkholes. Despite numerous studies, drilling and measurements, the researchers were helpless and could not predict the development of the situation. 8 September again came to ground subsidence. Under the passing Street. Świerczewskiego tractor with trailers began to osiadać Highway. Was a few metres depth hopper.
By less than two months of relative peace reigned in the lime. On the night of 28 on 29 October came to a further deformation of the surface in the form of large outdoor areas, Sinkholes, and the destruction of residential facilities in the streets: The Defenders Of Stalingrad, Staszica and Świerczewskiego. Thanks to the immediate rescue evacuated all residents of endangered buildings. Their houses had to leave more than 1000 people. Was a large reduction in the terrain along the route of the railway line Gniezno-Nakło n. Notecią. Destruction have railroad tracks. Part of the mine workers employed in the salt mine in Kłodawa and warzelniczych in Janikowie. Already started preparing to run repair establishments for the chemical industry. Surface deformation experienced by the end of January 1978 r.

kopalnia_soli_w_wapnie_katastrofa_5As a result of the rescue evacuated a total of 1402 a person with 47 buildings. In the evacuation of troops were involved. The whole area the police provide security for your. Evacuated the population used to substitute accommodation in several cities of 140 (Saw, Wągrowiec., Jamborees, Czarnków, Wronki, Trzcianka). However, the rest in the Lime half its inhabitants. In spite of the, that they lived in was non-keep them safe. The fundamental problem has become a complete flooding of the mine in order to prevent the collapse of mining workings and subsequent sinkholes. Water, that has stormed off to the mine on level III has fulfilled only two lowest levels (1/3 underground mining workings). Already in August 1977 r. company "Hydrokop" joined in safe mode to build water pipeline length 6 km, to deliver water from the J. Czeszewskiego. 10 October started pumping water from the Lake to the mine at a rate of 27 m3min. To mine workings and gypsum caps brought about 3,15 million m3 of water. The natural water flow was estimated by calculation 2,6 million m3.
16 August 1977 r. Minister of the chemical industry has established a team of practitioners and researchers under the leadership of ING. Kazimierz Ślizowskiego for supervision of liquidation of mine and disposal of mining damage. The workings of the mine and mining gypsum cap were sunk to 30 June 1978 r. Also mining stone and a major center of glass sand, and was completed to 30 June. 15 August 1978 r. The Council of Ministers has adopted a resolution on the Elimination of the effects of the lime salt mine disaster. Dealing with the consequences of the disaster took a few years. Demolished buildings unfit for repair and. Made roads and road. The shells in the machinery and the ground facilities of the mine and the lifting towers. The restoration has been the site of damage and repair of underground installations and ground-based. Was the replacement construction and fitting-out of the existing buildings and premises. In the years 1977-1984 for the removal of the damages was spent a total of approximately 410 mln zł. After the end of the threat part of residents returned to their homes.
To crash in the lime was due to water inrushes to mine on level III. With detailed research carried out at the premises of town and follows, the direct cause of the interruption of water into the mine was water connections between the numerous old mine heads and wodonośnymi layers, through the cracks in a protective salt shelf. Caused them long-term care and natural water hazards. Perennial care wysadu contributed to the infringement of the rock strength and reduce the balance of salt rocks.

kopalnia_soli_w_wapnie_katastrofa_6The decommissioning of the mine was inevitable and it was planned for the year 1986. A disaster in 1977 r. quickened her for nine years. A significant cause of the disaster must be traced in the operation of the level III. Taken in the 1952-1967 the exploitation of this level was in the wrong order, After you select a lower pozimów. The thickness of the protective shelves between levels III and IV only 9 (m). Before the start of the mining works not done any measurements and scientific studies to substantiate the possibility of safe operation of measurement (III) above selected already several deeper levels. It can be assumed, that work begin on level III was due to the necessity of rapid growth of mining in the late 1950s. If not for an excavation of salt at this level will most likely liquidation of mine przebiegałaby on schedule, without the tragic effects and absent to crash. You can also assume, that a violation of the stability of wysadu and excavation was caused by using the method of shooting deep holes, at which used explosive cargo.

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